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Annex | Footnotes


Violations of IAEA agreements by IRAN

Quotes from “A Decade of Agreement Violations by IRAN” infographic


1 GOV/2003/40, para. 3.

2 GOV/2003/40, para.32; GOV/2003/75, para.48; GOV/2004/83, paras 85–86; GOV/2005/67, para. 4.

3 GOV/2003/75, Annex 1; GOV/2004/83, paras 85–86.

4 GOV/2003/75, paras 13 and 15.

5 GOV/2003/40, para. 6. Iran stopped implementing the modified Code 3.1 in March 2007 (GOV/2007/22, para. 12).

6 GOV/2003/75, para. 18. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 21 November 2003, and signed on behalf of Iran and the Agency on 18 December 2003 (GOV/2004/11, para. 5). In February 2006, Iran notified the Agency that it would no longer implement the provisions of the Additional Protocol (GOV/2006/15, para. 31).

7 GOV/2004/11, para. 37.

8 Iran has stated that the intermediaries offered the reconversion unit with casting equipment on their own initiative, not at the request of the AEOI. Iran also stated that it did not receive the reconversion unit (GOV/2005/67, para. 14).

9 GOV/2005/87, para.6; GOV/2007/58, para. 25. Pakistan confirmed, in response to an Agency inquiry, that an identical document existed in Pakistan (GOV/2008/15, para. 24).

10 GOV/2006/15, para. 38.

11 GOV/2007/58, paras 18, 23, 25; GOV/2008/4, paras 11, 18, 24, 34.

12 GOV/2008/15, paras 14–15, 25.

13 GOV/2008/15, para. 16.

14 GOV/2008/38, para. 15.

15 GOV/2010/62, paras 34–35.

16 GOV/2008/38, para. 11.

17 GOV/2009/74, paras 7–17.

18 GOV/2010/10, para.31; GOV/2010/28, para.31; GOV/2010/46, para. 31.

19 GOV/2010/10, para. 33. In August 2010, Iran informed the Agency that the construction of one of these facilities was to start at the end of the current Iranian year (March 2011) or the beginning of the next year (GOV/2010/46, para. 33).

20 GOV/2010/46, para. 18.

21 GOV/2011/54, para. 43.

22 Further specific examples are described below in Section C of this Annex.

23 Nevertheless, there are, and have been in the past, activities in Iran relevant to the production of plutonium.

24 GOV/2004/83; GOV/2003/75, Annex 1.

25 At which time, according to Iran, the centre was changed to the Biological Studies Centre. Iran also stated that, in 2002, the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) was also located at that site, and that, although some of the biological activities continued there, the main objective was to use the capabilities of universities in Iran (in particular at the MalekAshtar University near Esfahan) for the education and R&D needs of the Ministry of Defence (GOV/2004/83, paras 100–101).

26 According to Iran, the site was cleared in 2003/2004 in order to return the land to the local municipality (GOV/2004/60, paras 42–46; GOV/2004/83, paras 96–105).

27 Possibly so named because one of the locations used by the AMAD Plan was on Orchid Street in Tehran.

28 The information indicates that SADAT consisted of at least seven centres, each responsible for carrying out specific R&D work. The activities were established as overt work applicable to conventional military activities, some with possible nuclear applications. The work in the SADAT Centres drew on resources at Iranian universities which had laboratories available to them and students to do the research.

29 The information indicates that, in his new role, MrFakhrizadeh merged the SADAT Centres into complexes within MUT, known as “Pardis Tehran”.

30 Known from its Farsi initials as “SPND”.

31 GOV/2008/4, para.32; GOV/2006/15, para. 39.

32 GOV/2008/4, para. 40.

33 GOV/2008/15, para. 24.

34 GOV/2008/38, para. 21.

35 The same network was also the source of an unsolicited offer to Iraq in 1990 for the provision of information dealing with centrifuge enrichment and nuclear weapon manufacturing (GOV/INF/1998/6, Section B.3).

36 GOV/2004/11, para.77; GOV/2004/12, paras 30–32.

37 GOV/2008/15, para. 20.

38 The authors of the papers have affiliations to MalekAshtar University and the Air Defence Industries Group of Tehran.

39 “Supercritical” density is one at which fissionable material is able to sustain a chain reaction in such a manner that the rate of reaction increases

40 GOV/2008/15, Annex, Section A.2, Document 3.

41 Hydrodynamic experiments can be designed to simulate the first stages of a nuclear explosion. In such experiments, conventional high explosives are detonated to study the effects of the explosion on specific materials. The term “hydrodynamic” is used because material is compressed and heated with such intensity that it begins to flow and mix like a fluid, and “hydrodynamic equations” are used to describe the behaviour of fluids

42 An “equation of state” is a thermodynamic equation describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions (such as temperature, pressure, volume or internal energy).

43 The modelling of neutron transport refers to the study of the motions and interactions of neutrons with materials which are used to see where they are and in what direction and at what speed they are going.

44 For example, the shaped (hollow) charge studies said by Member States to have been carried out by the Centre for Research and Development of Explosion and Shock Technology, also known as “METFAZ”, have conventional military applications (such as for developing armour piercing projectiles), but can also be used to develop computer codes which can then be adapted to model nuclear explosives.

45 GOV/2008/15, para. 22


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